In his book entitled “Al-Mabda‘ Wa’l-ma‘ad”, also called “al-Hikmat al-muta‘aliyyah”, Mulla Sadra names eight basic arguments that enjoy logical relation. He then concludes that scholars and jurists in the Utopia should have at least 12 features. He refers to a Quranic verse for each of his arguments. Here are the eight points:
1) The reason for the creation of man and the philosophy of prophethood is to guide man to eternal and absolute felicity. This will be realized by the approaching of human characteristics to those of Allah.
2) The only path for approaching God’s characteristics is to have a deep and correct faith in monotheism, Al-Nubuwwa (prophethood), and Maad (resurrection).
3) Humans are social and cannot address their needs without society; i.e. it is not possible to have an isolated individual world.
4) Society needs laws to establish justice and prevent oppression.
5) The only law of salvation that can answer the genuine needs of the man is religion and Sharia.
6) We need laws and the only law is the one offered by religion; we need an intermediary to receive the law from God and then announce it to people. Therefore, we need prophets.
7) After the demise of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), we need an intermediary between him and the people. This role is taken by the infallible Imams (AS) who carry revealed teachings and have been handed the Walayah of the Muslim Ummah. “We have made you (true Muslims) a moderate nation so that you could be an example for all people and the Prophet an example for you.” (Surah al-Baqara, verse 143)
8) The Imams (AS) act as intermediaries between the Prophet (PBUH) and scholars. The Imams receive the teachings of revelation and transfer them to religious scholars.
He then concludes that Walayah and the government should be in the hand of scholars.
This article is a summary of remarks made by Dr. Mehdi Bayat Mokhtari, an associate professor at the University of Neyshabur, at the 26th conference on commemorating Mulla Sadra