Muslim scholars and thinkers from 43 countries took part in the gathering, Arabic Sputnik News reported.
Also attending were representatives of the Russian president, State Duma and Senate.
The conference was organized by the Muslim World League.
A number of agreements were signed between the State Fund for Supporting Culture, Science and Education, the Federal Assembly, and religious departments in Russia, aimed at promoting the concept of tolerance and cooperation among followers of different faiths as well as supporting the teaching of the Arabic language and the Quran.
Islam is a minority religion in Russia. The country has the largest Muslim population in Europe.
There are estimated to be around 25 million Muslims in Russia.
It has been an observer state in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) since 2005.