It is among the Surahs revealed in Medina after the Holy Prophet (PBUH) moved to the city from Mecca. Since the Prophet (PBUH) established a government in Medina, a large part of the Surahs revealed in Medina feature social issues and rulings as well as Tashri’ (lawmaking).
Surah Al-Baqarah begins with the statement that there is no doubt about the Quran being a guide for the pious. It then describes different groups of people in terms of their response to those who invite t God and His Book and elaborates on different approaches of the people of the book, especially Jews, at the time of revelation of the verses of the Quran. It calls on all human beings to exercise Taqwa (God-fearing) and serve God.
The Surah also describes the actions of some disbelieving Jews and considers their breaking of promises, dishonesty and spreading of corruption as the main reasons why they are among those who incurred a great loss.
The strangeness of the actions of disbelievers, creation of heavens and earth, creation of Adam and Eve, Satan’s disobedience to God, and the fall of Adam and Eve are among other topics discussed in this Surah.
Given its great length, Surah Al-Baqarah has covered a variety of tissues, the main one of which include:
There are discussions in this Surah about knowing God especially through studying the secrets of creation.
The Resurrection and life after death has been discussed in this Surah with different examples.
There are discussions in this Surah about the significance of the Quran and its miracles.
There are extensive discussions about Jews and hypocrites and their stances against Divine commandments, Islam and the Quran and their acts of sabotage against the religion.
The history of prophets of God, especially stories of Abraham (AS) and Moses (AS) form a large part of this Surah.
Many religious laws about issues like prayer, fasting, Jihad, Hajj, marriage and divorce, trade, etc have been mentioned in this Surah.
Some verses of this Surah discuss Infaq and helping those in need.